ARB Research Seminar

This page updated June 19, 2013

Development of Exhaust Speciation Profiles for Commercial Jet Engines

Philip D. Whitefield, Ph.D., Chairman, Department of Chemistry, Director, Center of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Research, University of Missouri-Rolla, Richard Miake-Lye, Ph.D., Director and Vice President, Center for Aero Thermodynamics, Aerodyne Research, Inc.

October 24, 2007
Cal EPA Headquarters, 1001 "I" Street, Sacramento, CA

Research Project


Airport traffic is expanding and yet information is scarce on the exhaust speciation profiles of both total organic gases (TOG) and particulate matter (PM) from modern commercial jet aircraft using current fuels.

This seminar will report on the efforts to measure and sample emissions of CO, CO₂, NOₓ, Particulate Matter (PM) mass, speciated PM and speciated hydrocarbons at six thrust settings: 4%, 7%, 30%, 40%, 65% and 85%, from both engines on each of four parked 737 aircraft at Oakland International Airport in August of 2005.

Size distributions from 5nm to 1Ám were measured for all test points and associated aerosol shape parameters, and mass and number-based emission indices were evaluated along with real-time chemical speciation for some hydrocarbons. The bulk of the TOG speciation was pursued using off-line filter sampling approaches. Though most samples for light hydrocarbons (C1-C12) and carbonyls were not useable due to equipment issues, this study still resulted in the first quantitative values obtained using state of the art techniques for engine emission factors for PM and some TOG for the most common classes of gas turbine engines currently operating in the US domestic fleet.

The data from this test will serve to improve air quality prediction models used in Environmental Impact Statements and Reports for airport expansion projects, and for developing effective State Implementation Plans. This work was conducted by the University of Missouri-Rolla, Aerodyne Research Inc. and the University of California, Riverside.

Speaker Biography

Philip D. Whitefield, Ph.D., is a professor at the University of Missouri-Rolla and currently leads an internationally recognized research program associated with the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols at the UMRCOE, a Center of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Research. As director of the UMRCOE he coordinates a team of researchers from academia, private research corporations, the federal and state governments and the aerospace industries. In particular, he studies the aerosols generated by aerospace activities. This research program, initiated in 1990, has three major thrust areas - emissions measurement, interpretation of emissions measurements and the development of novel state of the art instrumentation tailored specifically to support the measurement and interpretation thrusts. This research has resulted in, to date, externally sponsored funding in excess of $17 million dollars.

In conjunction with his directorship of the UMRCOE, Professor Whitefield is a founding principal investigator in PARTNER the Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction an FAA NASA Transport Canada sponsored Center of Excellence, in which he leads the emissions measurement research component He is a co-author of the FAA NASA DOD EPA sponsored Particulate Matter (PM) National Roadmap. Prof. Whitefield is also co-founder and associate director of the UMR Center for Emerging Contaminants established in 2004. He is a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers E-31 Committee. In May 2007 Prof. Whitefield's research group at UMR, who were part of The Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Test and Data Quality Assurance Team, were awarded the EPA Climate Protection Award for developing "a test that will, for the first time, allow scientist to accurately gauge the contribution of jet aircraft particulate emissions to global climate change."

Richard Miake-Lye, Ph.D., is a Principal Scientist, Director of the Center for Aero Thermodynamics, and Vice President at Aerodyne Research, Inc. His current research involves studies of fluid flow, coupled with chemical reaction and/or condensation including applications to atmospheric effects. He served as a Lead Author for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change in writing the Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere.

Dr. Miake-Lye has led the Aerodyne team working as a prime partner in the University of Missouri , Rolla's Center of Excellence for Aerospace Propulsion Particulate Emissions Research in many recent field missions, including the APEX series. He was Chair of SAE's E-31 committee on aviation emissions measurements for the past five years. Ongoing professional activities include serving as the Research Focal Point for Local Air Quality to the International Civil Aviation Organization's Committee on Aviation Environmental protect, on the advisory board for the MIT-led Partnership for AiR Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction (PARTNER) sponsored by the FAA, NASA, and Transport Canada and as a member of the inter-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) in the Environmental Integrated Product Team.

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