CARB Research Seminar

This page updated March 2, 2018

Protocol Development for Vehicle Emission Toxicity Testing for Particulate Matter

Photo of Keith Bein

Keith Bein

Photo of Chris Vogel

Chris Vogel

Keith J. Bein, Ph.D., Norm Kado, Ph.D., and Chris Vogel, Ph.D., University of California, Davis

March 29, 2018
Cal EPA Headquarters, 1001 "I" Street, Sacramento, CA

Research Project


Toxicological testing of particulate samples is an integral aspect of evaluating possible health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) from new engine technology studies and source specific ambient PM. However, there are a multitude of possible standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sample preparation, each with inherent advantages and disadvantages. The main objective of this study was to systematically investigate these different SOPs and evaluate which procedures can retain the most toxicologically relevant chemical components of the sample for various toxicological assays while producing the fewest toxicological artifacts. To study the effect of sample preparation on the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP), six different sample preparation techniques were chosen for toxicological screening via a multi-point standard assay panel. The DEP samples studied include a NIST standard and filter samples collected from the exhaust stream of a dilution tunnel during a chassis dynamometer study. All sample extracts were toxicologically screened for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cellular inflammation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) response, and mutagenicity. The results of this study along with recommendations and guidelines for future ARB funded projects which require in vitro toxicological analysis of filter-based sample media will be discussed.

Speaker Biographies

Dr. Bein received Bachelor of Science degrees in Physics and Chemistry from California State University Chico and his Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences at University of California, Davis. He is currently an Associate Professional Researcher at the Air Quality Research Center and a Research Professor at the Center for Health and the Environment at U.C. Davis. His primary research interests include the health effects of air pollution, the development and implementation of novel exposure paradigms, air pollution meteorology and air quality dynamics, the role of particles in climate change, carbon capture and sequestration, design and development of aerosol measurement and sampling techniques and environmental justice.

Dr. Kado received his Bachelor degree in Biology from UC Riverside and his Ph.D. in Environmental Health Sciences from U.C. Berkeley. He is an Adjunct Professor in the Dept. of Environmental Toxicology U.C. Davis. His research involves integrated methods for the chemical and biological analyses of complex environmental mixtures. His group studies the genotoxic (DNA-damaging) effects and toxic mechanisms of environmental pollutants especially air pollutants. Recent studies involve investigating vehicle emissions and their control strategies such as particle filters, biodiesel fuels, and compressed natural gas (CNG). This approach is used in the evaluation of potential public and environmental health hazards.

Dr. Vogel received his degree in toxicology form the German Society of Pharmacology and Toxicology and his Ph.D. from Heinrich-Heine University in Dusseldorf, Germany. His research focuses on the function of receptors in signaling pathways and regulation of genes controlling differentiation and immunity. His team investigates how the innate immune system is affected after exposure to environmental pollutants such as particulate matter during and after differentiation and how these effects are related to autoimmune diseases, including allergy, asthma, and even cancer. This work is important for the understanding molecular endpoints and role of receptors for these diseases and may lead to better treatment methods in the future.

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