file:ARBrpt9810.doc	 April 6, 1999

SCAQMD Contract No: 98108

 

ARB LPG Fuel Blends Evaluation Project

October 1998 Progress Report

submitted to:

LPG Fuel Blends Evaluation Project Task Group

American Automobile Manufacturers Association, ARCO Products Co., California Air Resources Board, Cummins Engine Co., Engine Manufacturers Association, Equilon, Ford Motor Co., GFI, IMPCO, National Propane Gas Association, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, Propane Education and Research Council, Railroad Commission of Texas Alternative Fuels Research & Education Division, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Tosco Refining Co., and Western States Petroleum Association

 

  1. Executive Summary

ORTECH’s draft final report of the Medium-duty emissions tests on a Cummins B5.9LPG engine was sent to the Task Group. Final analysis of the Light-duty emissions tests on a Ford F150 Bi-Fuel Truck at ARB Haagen Smit Laboratory (ARB-El Monte) (completed in September) continued. Testing at both laboratories included Test Fuel #5 [added to protocol by Tosco Refining Company (Tosco)]. The LPG fuel blends’ main components are listed in Tables 1 and 2. The ADEPT Group, Inc. (ADEPT) worked with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to prepare for upcoming Performance/Combustion tests. Bids were solicited for fuel suppliers. The engine procurement process was completed. Durability test bids were reviewed. Project fundraising continued.

 

II.	Test Program Work Performed

  1. Fuel Properties and Octane Testing

    Composition tests were ordered for Test Fuels #1 and #5 used at ORTECH. Tests for Fuel #1 were completed (see appendices for results). Composition tests were ordered for Certification Fuel and Fuels #1 through #4 used at ARB-El Monte.

  2. Medium-Duty Engine (Cummins B5.9LPG) Emissions Tests at ORTECH.

    Emissions tests ended in August. ORTECH received edits from ADEPT on the Final Report. A second draft was sent to the Task Group for review and comment.

    Table 1 lists all the fuels used by ORTECH. The italicized percentages represent Dixie’s actual test results whereas the percentages in normal text represent the supplier’s figures. Composition tests were performed on fuels where these results are italicized.

    Table 1: Compositions by Percent Volume of Fuels at ORTECH*

    Fuel

    Propane

    Propylene

    N-Butane

    Certification Fuel

        From Aeriform

    94.42

    (94.15)

    3.68

        (3.59)

    1.90

        (2.03)

    Certification Fuel

        From Phillips

    95.01

    2.99

    2.00

    Test Fuel #1

        From Aeriform

    85.28

        (84.97)

    9.86

        (9.35)

    4.86

        (5.46)

    Test Fuel #2

        From Aeriform

    81.15

    (82.99)

    14.15

    (14.88)

    4.70

        (1.97)

    Test Fuel #3

        From Aeriform

    80.07

    9.97

    9.96

    Test Fuel #4

        From Aeriform

    76.34

    3.78

    19.88

    *As indicated by supplier. Italics indicate composition analysis from Dixie.

    ADEPT signed contract amendment authorization (AA) #11. It provides a maximum $900 for final report modifications and printing.

     

  3. Light-Duty Truck (F150 Bi-Fuel) Emissions Tests at ARB Haagen Smit Laboratory

    Table 2 summarizes emission results as of September 14, 1998.

    Table 2: Preliminary Emission Test Results for Light-Duty Truck

    Fuel

    NMOG

    NOx

    THC

    CO

    OZONE

     

    (g/mi)

    Base Fuel

    0.033

    0.040

    0.050

    1.74

    0.042

    Fuel #1

    0.029

    0.037

    0.055

    2.03

    0.044

    Fuel #2

    0.038

    0.043

    0.057

    2.08

    0.068

    Fuel #3

    0.040

    0.051

    0.052

    1.58

    0.059

    Fuel #4

    0.048

    0.040

    0.070

    2.74

    0.068

    Fuel #5

    ---

    0.053

    0.039

    2.08

    ---

    Note: Table provided by ARB.

    Table 3 lists all fuels used by ARB-El Monte.

     

    Table 3: Compositions by Percent Volume of Fuels at ARB-El Monte*

    Fuel

    Propane

    Propylene

    N-Butane

    Certification Fuel A

        From Aeriform

    94.25

    (94.05)

    3.84

        (3.73)

    1.91

        (1.91)

    Certification Fuel B

        From Aeriform

    94.26

    (94.07)

    3.84

    (3.72)

    1.91

    (1.90)

    Test Fuel #1

        From Aeriform

    84.96

    (85.26)

    10.02

    (9.58)

    5.02

    (4.87)

    Test Fuel #2

        From Phillips

    80.06

    14.94

    5.00

    Test Fuel #2

        From Aeriform

    79.98

    (80.23)

    15.01

    (14.68)

    5.01

    (4.97)

    Test Fuel #3

        From Aeriform

    79.97

    (80.02)

    10.02

    (9.79)

    10.01

    (9.98)

    Test Fuel #4

        From Aeriform

    76.18

    (76.12)

    3.83

    (3.71)

    19.99

    (19.95)

    Test Fuel #5

        From Phillips

    77.08

    21.32

    1.60

    *As indicated by supplier. Italics indicate composition analysis from Dixie.

    On September 25, 1998, test #27 was completed, which ended Light-duty testing. The fuel cylinders (from Aeriform) were sent to Dixie Services (Dixie) for composition analysis. F150 speciation tests results are included in the appendix.

  4. Performance/Combustion Tests

    Contract negotiations with SwRI for Performance/Combustion tests continued through October. The protocol was refined (see enclosed).

    ADEPT purchased an engine from El Dorado National and shipped it to SwRI. ADEPT ordered fuel from Air Liquide and Bell Hydrogas. A 1,000-gallon tank of Certification Fuel was ordered from Bell Hydrogas for the break-in period of the new engine. Fuel #1 (800 lbs.) and Certification Fuel (800 lbs.) were ordered from Air Liquide for the Performance/Combustion tests. A down payment was made to Air Liquide.

  5. Durability Tests

Final proposals were received from ORTECH and SwRI. Both laboratories were asked to make proposal modifications. ADEPT’s evaluation of the proposals continued. A laboratory recommendation will be made in November.

  1. Project Management Support and Administrative Work Performed

ADEPT was notified that the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC) approved $25,000 in funding. Contract preparation will continue in November. Tosco signed the Project Management Agreement, adding $25,000 to the project. South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is awaiting the November Board Meeting to approve funding for a new B5.9LPG engine for Performance/Combustion tests.

ADEPT submitted funding proposals to Cummins and California Energy Commission (CEC). ADEPT is awaiting response from: Dynegy/Chevron, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA). Funding from the Sacramento Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) for the durability test engine remains in limbo until warranty issues on the Cummins B5.9LPG engine are resolved. AFRED funding contract execution continues to be delayed.

 

  1. Project Expenditures

Table 4: October Expenditures and Total Expenditures to Date

Item

Funds Expended

In October

Funds Expended

to Date

Fuel (Air Liquide, Phillips) $9,690.85 $12,690.85
Emissions Tests (ORTECH) $39,084.47 $149,044.47
Fuel Properties (Dixie) $0.00 $9,679.50
Engine $15,804.50 $15,804.50
Project Management $7,525.09 $27,907.96
Attorney Fees $0.00 $2,250.00
Subcontractor $0.00 $473.29
Miscellaneous $631.36 $649.08


Total


$72,741.27


$218,499.65

Table 5 shows total funds received to date, by respective funder.	

Funder

Amount

ARCO $45,000.00
NPGA $8,920.00
NRCan $143,441.03
SCAQMD $45,000.00
Shell $36,000.00
WPGA $10,800.00


Total


$289,161.03

 

All signatures for filing the MOU were received except for Cummins. The Tosco contract was finalized. The Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) contract is in suspension pending resolution of organization issues at AFRED. The Disclosure of Joint Research Venture Filing is undergoing legal review at ARCO.

Travel associated with effort described:

No travel was conducted in October.

  1. Work planned for the next reporting period (November 1 - 30, 1998)

  1. Continue general project management.

  2. Prepare and complete funding contracts and letters of agreement for co-sponsors.

  3. Continue fundraising.

  4. Review ORTECH’s final report.

  5. Review ARB-El Monte’s results.

  6. Obtain an engine and fuel for Performance/Combustion tests.

  7. Review proposals for Durability tests and recommend a lab.

  1. ORTECH will submit its Final Report for Medium-Duty emission tests.

  2. ARB-El Monte will finalize results and submit a draft Final Report.

  3. SwRI will prepare for Performance/Combustion tests.

 

VI.	Disclaimer

This report was prepared by ADEPT as result of work co-sponsored by the SCAQMD and Task Group members. Opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations within are those of the author and do not necessarily represent SCAQMD’s views. SCAQMD, their officers, employees, contractors, and subcontractors make no warranty, expressed or implied, and assumes no legal liability for the information in this report. SCAQMD has not approved or disapproved this report, nor have they passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information contained herein.

 

  1. Glossary of Acronyms

AFRED	Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division

AA	 Amendment Authorization

ARB	 California Air Resources Board

ARB-El Monte	 ARB Haagen Smit Laboratory in El Monte, CA

CO	 carbon monoxide

EMA	 Engine Manufacturers Association

g/mi	 grams per mile

LPG	 liquefied petroleum gases

MOU	 memorandum of understanding

NMOG	non-methane organic gases

NOx	 oxides of nitrogen

PGAC	 Propane Gas Association of Canada

SCAQMD	South Coast Air Quality Management District

SMAQMD	Sacramento Air Quality Management District

SwRI	 Southwest Research Institute

TAC	 Technical Assessment Committee

THC	 total hydrocarbons

WPGA	 Western Propane Gas Association